How To Perform CPR?

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving technique used when someone's heartbeat or breathing has stopped. Knowing how to perform CPR correctly can significantly improve a person's chances of survival. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to perform CPR on an adult, child, or infant:

Note: Before attempting CPR, ensure your safety and the safety of the victim. If the victim is responsive and breathing normally, do not perform CPR. Instead, call for professional medical help if needed.

CPR for Adults and Adolescents (Puberty and Older):

Step 1: Assess the Situation

Before initiating CPR, make sure the environment is safe for both you and the victim. Look for any potential dangers, such as traffic, fire, or electrical hazards, and address them if possible.

Step 2: Check for Responsiveness

Gently tap the victim's shoulder and shout loudly, "Are you okay?" Look for any signs of responsiveness, such as movement, breathing, or vocalization. If the victim does not respond and is unresponsive, proceed to the next steps.

Step 3: Call for Help

If you are alone, call 911 (or your local emergency number) immediately. If others are present, instruct someone to call 911 while you begin CPR.

Step 4: Check for Breathing

Kneel beside the victim and check for breathing. Place your ear near their mouth and nose while looking at their chest. Look, listen, and feel for breathing for no more than 10 seconds. If the victim is not breathing or only gasping, proceed to CPR.

Step 5: Chest Compressions

Begin chest compressions by following these steps:

  1. Position the victim on their back on a firm surface.
  2. Place the heel of one hand on the center of the victim's chest, just below the nipple line. Place your other hand on top of the first hand, fingers interlocked.
  3. Position yourself with your shoulders directly over your hands and keep your arms straight.
  4. Use your upper body weight to compress the chest downward. Push hard and fast, aiming for a compression depth of at least 2 inches (5 centimeters). Allow the chest to fully recoil between compressions.
  5. Perform chest compressions at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute. You can use the rhythm of the song "Stayin' Alive" by the Bee Gees as a guideline for the correct pace.
  6. Continue chest compressions without interruptions until professional help arrives, an automated external defibrillator (AED) becomes available, the victim shows signs of life (such as breathing), or you become too fatigued to continue.

Step 6: Rescue Breaths (If Trained)

If you are trained in CPR and comfortable giving rescue breaths, you can combine chest compressions with rescue breaths. Here's how:

  1. After every 30 chest compressions, open the victim's airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift method. Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway.
  2. Pinch the victim's nose shut with your fingers, and cover their mouth with yours, creating an airtight seal.
  3. Give two rescue breaths, each lasting about 1 second and making the chest rise visibly.
  4. Resume chest compressions immediately after giving rescue breaths.

Continue this cycle of 30 chest compressions followed by 2 rescue breaths until professional help arrives, an AED becomes available, the victim shows signs of life, or you become too fatigued to continue.

CPR for Children (1 Year to Puberty):

The steps for CPR on children are similar to those for adults but with some differences in compression depth and rescue breaths:

  • Compression Depth: For children, compress the chest to a depth of about 2 inches (5 centimeters).
  • Rescue Breaths: Give two rescue breaths after every 30 chest compressions.

CPR for Infants (Up to 1 Year):

Performing CPR on infants requires special care due to their small size. Follow these steps:

  • Compression Depth: For infants, compress the chest to a depth of about 1.5 inches (4 centimeters).
  • Rescue Breaths: Give two gentle puffs of air into the infant's mouth and nose after every 30 chest compressions. Ensure that the breaths are just enough to make the infant's chest rise.

Using an Automated External Defibrillator (AED)

If an AED is available, follow the instructions provided with the device. AEDs are designed to analyze the victim's heart rhythm and, if necessary, deliver an electric shock (defibrillation) to restore a normal heart rhythm. Resume CPR immediately after using the AED as directed.

Conclusion

Knowing how to perform CPR is a vital skill that can save lives in emergencies. By following these step-by-step instructions and receiving proper CPR training and certification, you can confidently provide assistance in critical situations. Regularly refreshing your CPR skills through training and certification courses ensures that you remain prepared to respond effectively in life-threatening situations.

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