How To Give CPR?

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving technique that can be administered to individuals who have experienced cardiac arrest or are unresponsive and not breathing normally. Knowing how to perform CPR correctly can significantly improve a person's chances of survival. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to give CPR.

Step 1: Ensure Safety

Before initiating CPR, make sure the environment is safe for both you and the victim. Look for any potential dangers, such as traffic, fire, or electrical hazards, and address them if possible. If the area is unsafe, move the victim to a safer location, if feasible.

Step 2: Assess Responsiveness

Approach the victim and gently tap or shake their shoulders while shouting loudly, "Are you okay?" Look for any signs of responsiveness, such as movement, breathing, or vocalization. If the victim does not respond and is unresponsive, proceed to the next steps.

Step 3: Call for Help

If you are alone, or if there are others present, instruct someone to call 911 (or your local emergency number) immediately. If you are alone, call 911 yourself or use a speakerphone while continuing CPR.

Step 4: Check for Breathing

Kneel beside the victim and check for breathing. Place your ear near their mouth and nose while looking at their chest. Look, listen, and feel for breathing for no more than 10 seconds. If the victim is not breathing or only gasping, proceed to CPR.

Step 5: Chest Compressions

Begin chest compressions by following these steps:

  1. Position the victim on their back on a firm surface.
  2. Place the heel of one hand on the center of the victim's chest, just below the nipple line. Place your other hand on top of the first hand, fingers interlocked.
  3. Position yourself with your shoulders directly over your hands and keep your arms straight.
  4. Use your upper body weight to compress the chest downward. Push hard and fast, aiming for a compression depth of at least 2 inches (5 centimeters) for adults and about 1.5 inches (4 centimeters) for children and infants. Allow the chest to fully recoil between compressions.
  5. Perform chest compressions at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute. You can use the rhythm of the song "Stayin' Alive" by the Bee Gees as a guideline for the correct pace.
  6. Continue chest compressions without interruptions until professional help arrives, an automated external defibrillator (AED) becomes available, the victim shows signs of life (such as breathing), or you become too fatigued to continue.

Step 6: Rescue Breaths (If Trained)

If you are trained in CPR and comfortable giving rescue breaths, you can combine chest compressions with rescue breaths for adults, children, and infants. Here's how:

  1. After every 30 chest compressions (for adults and children) or 15 compressions (for infants), open the victim's airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift method. Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway.
  2. Pinch the victim's nose shut with your fingers, and cover their mouth with yours, creating an airtight seal.
  3. Give two rescue breaths, each lasting about 1 second and making the chest rise visibly.
  4. Resume chest compressions immediately after giving rescue breaths.

Continue this cycle of 30 chest compressions followed by 2 rescue breaths until professional help arrives, an AED becomes available, the victim shows signs of life, or you become too fatigued to continue.

Step 7: Use an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) (If Available)

If an AED is available, follow the instructions provided with the device. AEDs are designed to analyze the victim's heart rhythm and, if necessary, deliver an electric shock (defibrillation) to restore a normal heart rhythm. Resume CPR immediately after using the AED as directed.

Step 8: Continue CPR Until Help Arrives

Continue CPR until one of the following occurs:

  • Professional medical help arrives and takes over.
  • The victim shows signs of life (such as breathing).
  • You become too fatigued to continue, in which case, another trained person should take over if available.

Remember that performing CPR can be physically demanding. If someone else is available and trained, consider switching roles to prevent fatigue.


Knowing how to give CPR is a vital skill that can save lives in emergencies. By following these step-by-step instructions and receiving proper CPR training and certification, you can confidently provide assistance in critical situations. Regularly refreshing your CPR skills through training and certification courses ensures that you remain prepared to respond effectively in life-threatening situations.

 CPR + First Aid Certification

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