CPR + First Aid Certification Manual: Trauma Emergencies II

First Aid: Bone, Muscle & Joint Emergencies
Bone, Muscle and Joint Injuries

The most common bone and joint injuries are:  Fractures, Dislocations, Strains/Sprains.

Common Signs and Symptoms:  Deformity, Bruising, Swelling, Bone fragmentation, Lack of range of motion, Hearing a snapping or popping sound at the time of injury

First Aid Steps:

1. Ensure scene safety

2. Dial 911 if needed

3. Get PPE and first aid kit

4. Clean and dress any open wound without moving a deformed limb

5. Immobilize a fracture or dislocation by using a sling or padding to secure the affected area

6. Compression wrap a sprain/strain and apply ice if available

7. Elevate the sprain/strain if not painful

Special Note:  While fractures and dislocations should be immobilized without moving them, sprains and strains should be treated with R.I.C.E. (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation).

First Aid: Burn Emergencies

A burn is an injury caused by exposure to heat or a flame. Burns can be caused by a flame, chemicals, electricity and even friction. There are three classifications of burns.

Common Symptoms:

First Degree Burn (Superficial):  Affects the outer layer of skin, are painful and cause reddening

Second Degree Burn (Partial Thickness):  Affects lower layers of skin and cause reddening, swelling and blistering

Third Degree Burn (Full Thickness):  Affects all skin layers and can cause the skin to turn white or black and numb

First Aid Steps:

1. Ensure scene safety

2. Get PPE and first aid kit

3. Any burn that is in flame should be doused with water or smothered with a blanket

4. If the person is on fire, yell STOP-DROP-AND-ROLL

5. Call 911

6. Remove clothing that is not affixed to the burn

7. Wash and clean wound with cool water (1st and 2nd degree)

8. Place a burn dressing (non-adhesive) with topical antibiotic ointment on the burn

9. Perform CPR if necessary